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DIALEKTIKA PERIKANAN INDONESIA

Era zaman now memberikan kebebasan netizen di media sosial untuk berkomentar apa pun menanggapi  postingan seseorang tanpa ada pihak lain yang bisa intervensi. Komentar pun sangat beragam, ada yang positif maupun yang negatif bahkan ada menyerang pribadi di luar konteks (Ad hominem).  Diskursus intelektual melalui penulisan artikel lebih elegan dan lebih berkualitas karena minimal sudah diseleksi oleh editorial. Publikasi artikel  sanggahan dengan sudut pandang berbeda patut diapresiasi, karena akan memperkaya referensi dialektika sektor perikanan. Publik dapat belajar saling menghargai pendapat yang berbeda serta dapat menilai mana informasi yang reliable, mana yang hoax. Pembaca mungkin masih ingat pada tanggal 10 Januari 2018 Presiden Jokowi meminta Menteri Susi Pudjiastuti untuk fokus pada industri pengolahan ikan yang berorientasi ekspor karena ekspor turun. Namun keesokan harinya 11 Januari 2018 Menteri Susi Pudjiastuti menyatakan sebaliknya laju pertumbuhan nilai ekspor hasil perikanan Indonesia melampaui China, Thailand dan Vietnam.  Masyarakat luas banyak memuji dan percaya dengan pernyataan MKP yang kontradiktif ini. Setelah dianalisis lebih jauh ternyata laju pertumbuhan nilai ekspor perikanan dunia tidak ditampilkan secara utuh, hanya dipilih negara-negara yang peringkatnya di bawah Indonesia. Negara-negara lain yang peringkatnya di atas Indonesia tidak ditampilkan utuh datanya (misleading information) dan ironisnya laju pertumbuhan ekspor Indonesia hanya menduduki peringkat ke 12. China sebagai negara eksportir perikanan terbesar dunia laju pertumbuhannya wajar melambat karena sudah mencapai tahap kedewasaan, begitu pula  ekspor perikanan Vietnam dan Thailand yang nilai ekspor produk perikanannya jauh melampaui Indonesia. (lihat lampiran) 

 

Kinerja Utama Ekspor Perikanan 2015-2018 Negatif

Ukuran Kinerja utama ekspor hasil perikanan seharusnya mengacu pada Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJMN) 2015-2019. Akumulasi kinerja ekspor perikanan negatif -Rp 158,6 Trilyun selama 2015-2018.  Kinerja ekspor perikanan negatif ini tentu sangat memprihatinkan sekaligus indikator bahwa ada kebijakan pengelolaan yang kurang tepat.

Khusus kinerja ekspor Tuna Indonesia seharusnya dianalisis secara holistik, baik dari laju pertumbuhan volume mau pun nilai ekspor. Laju pertumbuhan volume ekspor tuna negatif, cenderung merosot selama periode 2014–2018 berturut-turut 185,753 Ton, 159,946 Ton, 134,249 Ton,196,240 Ton, 167,695 Ton. Sedangkan laju nilai ekspor tuna periode yang sama meningkat  berturut-turut USD 579,393, USD 508,215, USD 485,926, USD 649,871, USD 710,110 (Kenaikan nilai ekspor TTC tidak dibarengi dengan kenaikan volume ekspor mengindikasikan tidak optimalnya kapasitas industri perikanan tuna nasional)

 

Kesenjangan Produksi dan Volume Ekspor

Peringkat teratas 5 besar eksportir hasil perikanan dunia tahun 2018 berdasarkan volume, berturut turut diduduki oleh China dengan volume 4.190.734 ton, Norwegia 2.476.046 ton, berikutnya Rusia 1.797.136 ton, Vietnam 1.563.422 ton, Belanda 1.416.2019 ton. Volume ekspor hasil perikanan Indonesia relatif rendah hanya 888.688 ton, dan sangat tidak sinkron dengan volume produksi perikanan tangkap mencapai 6.72 juta ton. DIskrepansi ini merupakan tantangan sekaligus peluang untuk meningkatkan volume ekspor ditingkatkan menjadi 2,5 juta ton, agar peringkat Indonesia dapat naik menjadi eksportir perikanan nomor 2 dunia mengalahkan Norway.

Begitu pula data produksi TTC Indonesia tahun 2017 sebanyak 1.231.790 ton, angka ini harus diuji validitasnya termasuk seluruh data kapal dan hasil tangkapannya perlu dibuka ke publik dan dianalisis lebih lanjut. Jika kita analisis volume ekspor tuna 196.240 ton (2017), maka persentase alokasi volume produksi tuna untuk ekspor yang sangat minim 15.59%. malah alokasi tahun 2018 lebih minim lagi karena volume ekspor TTC anjlok menjadi 167.695 ton. Pelaku usaha mempertanyakan kemampuan pasar domestic menyerap surplus produksi 1.05 juta ton tuna. Apakah harga tuna dalam negeri lebih tinggi dari harga ekspor? Jika produksi TTC  melimpah mengapa industri pengolahan Tuna kekurangan bahan baku sehingga kita masih mengimpor tuna? Impor Tuna yang meningkat jelas mengindikasikan industri pengolahan TTC kekurangan supply bahan baku hasil tangkapan dari dalam negeri. Volume impor tuna 2 tahun terakhir mengalami kenaikan, semula 6.218 Ton (2017) naik menjadi 16,277 Ton (2018) Jika memang ada surplus 1juta ton Tuna Kita seharusnya mampu mengoptimalkan kapasitas industri pengolahan Tuna dan berpeluang menjadi eksportir tuna terbesar dunia dengan meningkatkan volume ekspor tuna 3 kali lipat menjadi 600.000 ton sekaligus mengalahkan Thailand yang tahun 2018 volume ekspornya 536.612 ton

Pelaku usaha sangat mendukung pernyataan Presiden Jokowi baru-baru ini bahwa Menteri yang akan datang memiliki kemampuan eksekusi yang kuat yang mampu mengeksekusi setiap program percepatan industri perikanan nasional dan merealisasikan Key Performance Indicator sehingga pilar kesejahteraan dapat diwujudkan. Peluang kita untuk menjadi eksportir perikanan dunia sesungguhnya sangat terbuka lebar, untuk mencapai target yang ditetapkan dalam RPJMN bukan hal yang mustahil. Menuju perikanan bertanggung jawab dan berkelanjutan, membutuhkan iklim usaha yang kondusif agar pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan dapat optimal, yang dapat menciptakan lapangan kerja, meningkatkan kapasitas industri pengolahan sehingga ekspor perikanan juga meningkat sekaligus dapat mengurangi defisit neraca perdagangan. Tantangan terbesar sektor perikanan ke depan adalah bagaimana mempersempit kesenjangan antara potensi sumber daya ikan, volume produksi dengan volume ekspor hasil perikanan

Mari kita wujudkan Indonesia Fishery Incorporated.

 

INDONESIAN FISHERY DIALECTICS

Today's era gives netizens the freedom on social media to comment in response to someone's post without anyone else being able to intervene. Comments are also very diverse, there are positive as well as negative ones, or even private attacks outside the context (Ad hominem).  Intellectual discourse through article writing is more elegant and more qualified because at least it has been selected by the editorial. Publication of an article of contention with a different point of view should be appreciated, even if it has not answered the core of the previous writing, it will still enrich the dialectic reference of the Fisheries sector. The public can learn mutual respect for different opinions as well as be able to assess which information are reliable, and which are hoax. Readers may still remember on January 10th, 2018, President Jokowi called for Minister Susi Pudjiastuti to focus on export-oriented fish processing industry due to the decrease in exports. But the next day, Minister Susi Pudjiastuti stated that the rate of growth of Indonesia's fishery exports exceeds China, Thailand and Vietnam.  Many people praised and believed this contradictory statement of the Minister. After further analysis it turned out that the growth rate of fisheries export value is not displayed in full, only selected countries that rank under Indonesia. The Data of other countries whose rank are above Indonesia were not displayed in whole. The more ironic thing is, Indonesia's export value growth rate is only ranked 12th.

 

Key performance of the negative number of fishery products exports

The main performance measure of fishery products export results should refer to the National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) 2015-2019. The accumulated negative fishery export performance indicator amounted to -Rp 158.6 trillion during 2015-2018.  The negative export performance of the Indonesian fishery products is certainly very concerning as well as indicating that there is a fault in the policy during all this time, which resulted in the inequality between the target and the realization of export of fishery products.

The performance of the Indonesian tuna export should be analyzed holistically, both from the rate of growth of export volume and export value. The growth rate for the export of tuna tends to decline between 2014 – 2018; 185.753 tons, 159.946 tons, 134.249 tons,196,240 tons, 167.695 tons, respectively. Meanwhile, the growth rate of tuna export value of the same period tends to rise; USD 579,393, USD 508,215, USD 485,926, USD 649,871, USD 710,110 (paradoxically, the increase in export value of tuna and tuna-like species is not coupled with the increase in the export volume that has instead dropped. This is an indicator of the sub-optimal capacity of the national tuna fishery Industry)

 

The Indonesian production of tuna and tuna-like species in 2017 was recorded as 1,231,790 tons. The validity of this number should be tested. All the vessel data and the catch results need to be analyzed further. The volume of the capture fisheries production in 2018, which reached 6.72 million tons was asynchronous with the export volume of fishery results of only 0.72 million tons in the same year. It seems that we need a Data Amnesty program for this, because unreliable data will lead to an erroneous policy

 

If we analyze the tuna export volume of 196,240 ton in 2017, the percentage of tuna allocated for export was very minimal (15.59%). The allocation in 2018 was even less at 13.61% (167,695 ton). This rises some critical questions. How much tuna are absorbed for the domestic market consumption? Is the price of domestic tuna higher than the exported price? If the tuna and tuna-like species production is abundant why do we still import tuna? Moreover, seeing that the imported tuna volume in the last 2 years has increased, originally 11,320 tons (2017), then increased rapidly in 2018 to 31,232 tons. This import volume will also affect the export volume in 2018. The following are details of the data from UNComtrade, ITC. The 3 types of tuna primarily imported to Indonesia are Frozen Skipjack tuna 6.218 ton (2017) increased to 16.227 ton (2018), Frozen Yellowfin Tuna 1,037 ton (2017) increased to 6,251 tons (2018), Frozen bigeye Tuna 68 tons (2017) jumped to 1,093 tons (2018). The Tuna imports clearly indicate that the tuna and tuna-like species industry lacks supply of raw materials from the domestic. Tuna imports do not need to be banned, the important thing is that there must be a value added for re-exports, as Thailand did. It would be much better if we were able to optimize the utilization of tuna fish resources by the national fishing vessels.

The government non-tax revenue (PNBP) of the fisheries sector could be increased with another simpler, more equitable alternative that is based on the actual fish landing value. For example, the production of Capture fisheries in 2018 is said to reach 6.72 million tons = 6.72 billion kilograms. If the levy on fishery products (PHP) is collected at an average of 1,000 IDR per kg, the PNBP will exceed 6.72 Trillion IDR. It is 10 times more compared to the result obtained by the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries in 2018 at 647.47 Billion IDR.

Moving towards a responsible and sustainable fishery industry requires a synergy of policy to create a conducive business climate, by removing counterproductive policies so that the fishery resources can be optimally utilized, resulting in the increase of the capacity of processing industry that will create jobs and boost the national fishery exports and reduce trade deficit. The industry strongly supports the recent statement of the  President, which was that the new Minister will have a great capability of executing every program that will lead to the acceleration of the development of national fisheries industry and to realize the Key Performance Indicators. One of the big homework that remains to be done by the next Minister is to reduce the gap between the potential, actual production, and export volume. Let's realize Indonesia Fishery Incorporated.

 

Jakarta 01 Oktober 2019

Hendra Sugandhi

Sekretaris Jendral Asosiasi Tuna Indonesia

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